Friday, May 8, 2020

Tropical and Subtropical Herbs


Tropical and Subtropical Herbs



As a horticulturist, we have favorite endeavors such as growing plants especially herbs. Herbs are very versatile and can be placed within your landscaping as groundcovers, shrubs, and trees. Herbs make an excellent choice to decorate a sunny patio, deck, or balcony, and the flowers that are produced on herbs will provide twice the amount of fun to your growing area. The seeds and flowers will provide additional ingredients to recipes. Processing the seeds produced by herbs make additional ingredients to add to recipes. For example, when Cilantro goes to seed the seeds are called Coriander when crushed; and when Dill goes to seed the processed seeds are called Dill Weed. Most flowers produced by herbs are edible and are used in salads, garnishes, and cooking or can be used in dried floral arrangements. For example, add Mexican Marigold Mint flowers to salads and Lavender flowers can be dried and used in floral arrangements. Plants that are classified as Herbs are very diverse and have multiple uses around the home besides just for cooking. Speaking of cooking, I would like to ask my readers to share one of their favorite recipes using one or more of the herbs listed below. You may share it in the comments section or you can email it to me at: cheryl@hibiscusandmore.com. This could be lots of fun!!!



Allspice – Pimenta dioica. Type: Tree. Height: 20-30 feet. Spacing: 15-20 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun. Uses: Allspice is a combination of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg taste. The fruit and leaves are used in cooking vegetables, soups, desserts, gingerbread, apple and pumpkin pie. Next time you make red cabbage try about ¼th teaspoon of Allspice. Allspice can also be grown in a container and brought inside before first frost. 
Allspice - Pimenta dioica

Arugula - Eruca sativa. Type: Annual. Height: 12 – 18 inches. Spacing: 6 – 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Excellent companion plant for salad mixes. Arugula prefers cool temperatures and can be grown from seeds or plants in early spring or fall. Can harvest 21 days after planting. To extend the growing season keep flower buds pinched back.

Basil - Ocimum basilicum. Type: Annual. Height: 18 – 30 inches. Spacing: 12 – 18 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Blooms pink flowers in summer. Additional Uses: Leaves can be used fresh or dried in tomato dishes, pasta dishes, vegetables, and soups. A companion plant that repels aphids, mites, and tomato hornworms. There are several different cultivars of Basil some favorites are Lemon and Cinnamon Basil.
Basil - Ocimum basilicum

Bay Rum Tree – Pimenta racemosa. Type: Tree. Height: 20-25 feet. Spacing: 25 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are a combination of cinnamon, clove, nutmeg with hints of vanilla and cardamom. Uses: Leaves are used in cooking rice dishes, soups, stews, tea, vegetables and meat dishes. 
Bay Rum Tree - Pimenta racemosa

Catmint - Nepeta x faassenii. Type: Perennial. Height: 12 – 18 inches. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Profuse lavender blooms on spiky stems. Good for containers and the perennial garden. Soft, crinkled, gray-green leaves on a compact, mounding plant. Additional Uses: Butterfly nectar plant and your cats will love it.  
Catmint - Nepeta x faassenii

Catnip - Nepeta cataria. Type: Perennial. Height: 2 – 4 feet. Spacing: 12 – 18 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Vigorous, high-yielding plants. Cat-attracting perennial with gray-green leaves and white flowers. Additional uses: Butterfly nectar plant and your cats will love it.  
Catnip - Nepeta cataria

Chives - Allium schoenoprasum. Type: Perennial. Height: 18 – 24 inches. Spacing: 4 – 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Chives have a mild onion flavor that is very pleasing and is easy to grow. Uses: Can be added to soups, salads, egg dishes, potatoes, fish dishes, or any dish that requires a mild onion flavor fresh or frozen. Additional Uses: Mosquito Repellent Plant or border/edger plant.  
Chives - Allium schoenoprasum


Cilantro, Coriander - Coriandrum sativum. Type: Annual. Height: 12 – 18 inches. Spacing: 6 – 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in salsa, guacamole, sauces, and seafood. When Cilantro produces seeds the seed of Cilantro are called Coriander.

Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum. Type: Tree. Height: 50 feet. Spacing: 25-35 feet. Light Requirements: Full sun. Uses: The inner bark is used for the spice cinnamon and is used in baking, desserts, pies, cookies, breads, cocoa, eggnog, and toast. 
Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum

Citronella Grass - Cymbopogon nardus. ((Cymbopogon flexuosus) (East Indian)). Type: Perennial, annual outside zone 9. Height: 5-6 feet. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Nectar plant for butterflies, Mosquito repellent plant, leaves are used in cooking, in potpourris, sachets, and the oil from the plant is used in citronella candles.

Costa Rican Mint – Satureja viminea. Type: Shrub. Height: 3-6 feet. Spacing: 3-4 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Peppermint flavored leaves used fresh or dried in soups, stuffing, sauces, meats, egg dishes, salads, and teas.

Cuban Oregano – Plectranthus amboinicus. Type: biennial. Height: 1-2 feet. Spacing: 2-3 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. The leaves have a strong flavor and use sparingly. Use in soups, stews, stuffing, fish, meats, Cuban black bean dishes, in containers and hanging baskets.

Cutting Celery, Leaf Celery, Celery Leaf – Apium graveolens var. secalinum. Type: biennial. Height: 10 – 12 inches. Spacing: 10 – 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Excellent plant to grow in containers. Cutting Celery is an excellent substitute for traditional celery, but without all the growing hassle. Very easy to grow and taste just like traditional celery, and cutting celery can be used in every recipe that calls for traditional celery.

Dill – Anethum graveolens.Type: Annual. Height: 18 – 36 inches. Space: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Yellow blossoms in summer, seed heads can be harvested. The seeds can be crushed and used in cooking. The leaves can be used fresh in potato, tuna, and chicken salads; fresh chicken and fish dishes. Additional Uses: Attracts butterflies and a larval food plant for butterflies. (Plant enough for you and the butterflies!).
Dill – Anethum graveolens

Epazote – Dysphania ambrosioides (Chenopodium ambrosioides). Type: Annual. Height: 3 – 4 feet. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in bean, soups, eggs or cheese dishes.

French Lavender – Lavandula dentata. Type: Perennial. Height: 24-36 inches. Spacing: 20-23 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun. Uses: Potpourri, dried flowers, cut flowers, fragrant.

French Tarragon – Artemisia dracunculus ‘Sativa’. Type: Perennial. Height: 24 inches. Spacing: 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in eggs, poultry, salads, cheese, and fish.

Garlic Chives - Allium tuberosum.Type: Perennial. Height: 18 – 24 inches. Spacing: 6 – 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Garlic Chives have flat, thin leaves with a mild blend of garlic and onion. Uses: Can be added to soups, salads, egg dishes, potatoes, fish dishes, or any dish that requires a mild onion flavor fresh or frozen. Additional Uses: Mosquito Repellent Plant or border/edger plant.
Garlic Chives - Allium tuberosum

Greek Oregano - Origanum vulgare subsp. Hirtum. Type: Perennial. Height: 24 inches. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in Italian dishes, pizza, shellfish, egg dishes, beef, pork, and poultry dishes.

Henna – Lawsonia inermis.
Type: Shrub. Height: 7-8 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun. Uses: Leaves are used fresh or dried for dyes, cosmetics and fabrics.
Henna – Lawsonia inermis

Italian Oregano – Origanum vulgare. Type: Perennial. Height: 24 inches. Spacing: 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in Italian dishes, pizza, shellfish, egg dishes, beef, pork, and poultry dishes.

Lavender - Lavandula angustifolia. Type: Perennial. Height: 18-24”. Spacing: 12-18” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Nectar plant for butterflies, flowers can be dried, in potpourris, and sachets.

Lemon Grass - Cymbopogon citratus (West Indian).
Type: Perennial. Height: 2-3 feet. Spacing: 12” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Nectar plant for butterflies, Mosquito repellent plant, leaves are used in cooking, in potpourris, and sachets.
Lemon Grass - Cymbopogon citratus

Lemon Thyme – Thymus x citriodorus. Type: Perennial. Height: 12 inches. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun. Light purple flowers in summer. Wonderful Lemon scent when leaves are crushed or walked upon. Additional Uses: All leaves have a distinct lemon flavor that can be used in cooking. Attracts Butterflies and Hummingbirds to the garden.

Lemon Verbena – Aloysia triphylla. Type: Perennial, treat as an annual outside zone 8. Height: To 4 feet. Spacing: 18-24” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: The oil is used in perfumes; the leaves are used in flavoring teas and jellies.

Mexican Marigold Mint - Tagetes lucida.Type: Perennial. Height: 24-30”. Spacing: 12-18” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Butterfly nectar and larval food plant, Mosquito repellent plant, fresh flowers are used in salads; leaves are used as a substitute for French tarragon.  
Mexican Marigold Mint - Tagetes lucida

Parsley - Petroselinum crispum. Type: Annual. Height: 12 – 18 inches. Spacing: 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in meat dishes, soups, and salads.

Pennyroyal – Mentha pulegium. Type: Perennial. Height: 6 – 12 inches. Spacing: 12 – 24 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Purple flowers in late summer through fall. Additional Uses: A groundcover, nectar plant for butterflies, the leaves are used in the flavoring for fish dishes, and grows well in a hanging basket.

Peppermint - Mentha piperita. Type: Perennial. Height: 24-36”. Spacing: 12-18” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Leaves are used fresh in hot and iced teas, butterfly nectar and larval food plant.

Pineapple Sage – Salvia elegans. Type: Perennial. Height: 3 - 4 feet. Spacing: 3 – 4 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Blooms red flowers in spring, summer, and fall. The leaves when crushed smell and taste like fresh pineapple. Additional Uses: The fresh leaves can be used in drinks and salads. The leaves can be used in hot or cold drinks, and the flowers and leaves are used chopped in salads. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds to the garden.

Prostrate Rosemary - Salvia rosmarinus 'Prostratus’.
Type: Perennial shrub or groundcover. Height: 12-18”. Spacing: 2 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: The leaves are used in lamb and fish dishes, butterfly nectar plant, Mosquito repellent plant, and drought tolerant plant.
Prostrate Rosemary - Salvia rosmarinus 'Prostratus’

Rosemary - Salvia rosmarinus.Type: Perennial shrub. Height: 4 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: The leaves are used in lamb and fish dishes, drought tolerant plant, Mosquito repellent plant, and butterfly nectar plant.
Rosemary - Salvia rosmarinus

Sage - Salvia officinalis. Type: Perennial. Height: 3 feet. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in stuffing and meat dishes.

Salad Burnet - Sanguisorba minor. Type: Perennial. Height: 12 inches. Spacing: 8 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves have a mild cucumber taste and are used in salads, vinegars, and cold drinks.

Spanish Lavender – Lavandula stoechas. Type: Perennial. Height: 18-24”. Spacing: 12-18” apart. Light Requirements: Full sun. Additional Uses: Nectar plant for butterflies, flowers can be dried, in potpourris, and sachets.

Spearmint – Mentha spicata. Type: Perennial. Height: 24-36”. Spacing: 36-48 inches. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Additional Uses: Leaves are used fresh in hot and iced teas, Butterfly Nectar and Larval Food Plant.

Stevia - Stevia rebaudiana. Type: Hardy Perennial in USDA zones 9 and 10. Height: 18 – 24 inches. Spacing: 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Stevia is a natural sweetener that is used as a sugar substitute that is calorie free. Leaves can be used fresh or dried in beverages, sauces, and salads. Do not plant outdoors until temperatures are above 45 degrees. Avoid afternoon summer sun in extreme southern areas during July and August. During these months it’s recommended to put the container in afternoon shade. Check for leafhoppers and whiteflies which may be a problem.

Summer Thyme – Thymus vulgaris. Type: Perennial. Height: 6 – 12 inches. Spacing: 6 – 12 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Blooms lilac to purple flowers in summer. Additional Uses: All leaves are used in cooking. Attracts butterflies to the garden. All thyme plants can be used as an alternative ground cover.

Sweet Bay Laurel – Laurus nobilis.Type: Perennial. Height: 12 – 15 feet. Growth rate slow and plants growing in containers will be somewhat shorter. Spacing: 24 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Blooms pale yellow flowers in spring. Leaves are used in Italian and fish dishes. Companion plants are Prostrate rosemary, Lavender, and Oregano.   
Sweet Bay Laurel – Laurus nobilis

Sweet Marjoram - Origanum majorana. Type: Perennial. Height: 12 to 18 inches. Spacing: 9 inches apart. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Leaves are used in eggs, meats, rice, pastas, soups, vegetables.



Photography and digital images are ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2012. All Rights Reserved. All photographs and digital images displayed in this article are for viewing purposes only and cannot be duplicated ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2012. Texas Certified Nursery Professional #1282.


Sunday, May 3, 2020

Shady Garden Shrubs


Shady Garden Shrubs

One of the challenges to gardening is selecting plants that grow in part-shade to shade. The way I define part-shade to shade to my retail customers is like walking into a forest. At the outer edge of the forest you are in full sun light and as you enter the forest the light begins to be part-shade as you look around some plants are receiving sun whereas other plants are receiving shade. This is part-shade a little bit of sun and a little bit of shade from sun rise to sun set. As you enter into the middle of the forest the sunlight cannot be seen and this is what would be defined as shade or full shade. As you exit the forest the sunlight becomes brighter and the plants in the forest are receiving part-shade again; and as you walk out of the forest you are in full sunlight again.

The palette of shady garden plants to choose from is numerous. There are shrubs, perennials, annuals, and trees. There are numerous plants in each category and we will discuss Shady Garden Shrubs: Shrubs are defined as plants with multiple stems, but some shrubs can reach a mature height of 20 feet or more when not pruned. Some shrubs that can reach 20 feet or more can be trained to be trees with a central leader stem. 




Arrowwood Viburnum – Viburnum dentatum: Zones: 2-8. Height: 6-10 feet. Spacing: 6-8 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Privacy shrub, small tree, specimen, borders.

Aucuba – Aucuba japonica: Zones: 6-10. Height: 6-10 feet. Spacing: 5-7 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Hedge, screen, containers, accent, specimen.

Azalea – Rhododendron spp.: Zones: 4-9. Height: 2.5 to 10 feet, depending on cultivar. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade, depending on cultivar. Uses: The shorter cultivars in borders or beds, the taller cultivars as hedges or specimens.

Beautyberry – Callicarpa americana: Zones: 6-10. Height: 6-8 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Woodland plantings, mass plantings, screening, attracts birds and butterflies, fall-winter interest.   
Beautyberry – Callicarpa americana






















Carol Mackie Daphne – Daphne X burkwoodii ‘Carol Mackie’: Zones: 4-8. Height: 2-3 feet. Spacing: 2-3 feet apart. Light: Partial shade. Uses: Woodland plantings, entrances (to enjoy the fragrant blossoms), shrub borders, accent.

Chinese Mahonia – Mahonia fortunei: Zones: 7-10. Height: 4-6 feet. Spacing: 3-4 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Woodland garden, hedge, specimen, accent, border, container.

Cleyera – Ternstroemia gymnanthera: Zones: 7-11. Height: 6-8 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Screen, hedge, foundation, container.

Climbing Hydrangea – Hydrangea anomala subsp. petiolaris: Zones: 4-8. Height: To 40 feet. Spacing: 5-10 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Trellis, arbors, fences, low retaining walls, tree trunks.

Dwarf Yaupon Holly – Ilex vomitoria ‘Nana’: Zones: 7-10. Height: 3-5 feet. Spacing: 4-6 feet apart. Light: Full sun to shade. Uses: Foundation, low hedge, planter boxes, mass plantings.

Dwarf Yaupon Holly
















Fatshedera – X Fatshedera lizei: Zones: 7-11. Height: 3-5 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: The plant is considered semi-climbing vine/shrub. Containers, trellis, arbor, groundcover.

Fatsia – Fatsia japonica: Zones: 7-10. Height: 8-10 feet. Spacing: 4-6 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Japanese gardens, houseplant, container, shade gardens, the large foliage will give a tropical look to landscapes and gardens.

Florida Anise – Illicium floridanum: Zones: 7-10. Height: 8 feet. Spacing: 4-6 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Hedge, specimen, woodland gardens.  
Florida Anise



Hemlocks – Tsuga canadensis: Zones: 3-7. Height: 40-70 feet. Spacing: 25-30 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Screen, specimen, woodland gardens. There are several Tsuga cultivars from dwarf to large trees and all will take partial shade to shade.

Hetz Japanese Holly – Ilex crenata ‘Hetzii’: Zones: 5-9. Height: 3-6 feet. Spacing: 3-4 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Mass or group plantings, hedge, borders, oriental gardens.

Hydrangeas – Hydrangea spp.: Zones: 5-9. Height: 3-15 feet, depending on variety. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Group plantings, woodland gardens, specimen, cut flowers, container, and the shorter varieties can be used in borders.

Japanese Boxwood – Buxus spp.: Zones: 5-9. Height: 2-5 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Full sun to shade. Uses: Topiary, foundation, container, hedge, border.

Boxwood


Japanese Pieris – Pieris japonica: Zones: 3-9. Height: 3-8 depending on variety. Spacing: 4-6 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Woodland gardens, borders, accent, containers.

Japanese Pittosporum – Pittosporum tobira: Zones: 7-10. Height: 2-10 feet, depending on cultivar. Spacing 4-6 feet apart. Light: Full sun to shade. Uses: Mass plantings, screen, borders, foundation, hedge.

Japanese Rose – Kerria japonica: Zones: 4-9. Height: 3-6 feet. Spacing: 6-8 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Woodland gardens, hedge, specimen, group plantings.

Leatherleaf Mahonia – Mahonia bealei: Zones: 6-9. Height: 4-8 feet. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Woodland gardens, specimen, containers, screening, barrier.

Mountain Laurels – Kalmia latifolia: Zones: 4-9. Height: 2-8 feet depending on variety. Spacing: 3-5 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: Woodland gardens, compliments Rhododendrons and Azaleas, group plantings, accent.

Nandina – Nandina domestica: Zones: 6-9. Height: 2-8 feet. Spacing: 2-4 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: group plantings, vertical accent, shorter varieties can be used in beds and borders, informal hedge.  
Nandina


Rhododendron – Rhododendron spp.: Zones: 4-9. Height: 2-8 feet, depending on variety. Spacing: 4-6 feet apart. Light: Partial shade to shade. Uses: The taller varieties can be used in screening, companion plant with Azaleas, shorter varieties can be used in borders, group plantings, accent, and woodland gardens.

Sky Pencil Holly – Ilex crenata ‘Sky Pencil’: Zones: 5-9. Height: 4-10 feet. Spacing: 1-3 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Vertical accent, container, entryways, screening, accent, great for small gardens or tight spaces.


Southern Wax Myrtle – Morella cerifera: Zones: 7-10. Height: 10-15 feet, can reach up to 25 feet. Spacing: 6-8 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Screen, hedge, attracts wildlife, accent, specimen. 
Southern Wax Myrtle



Tea Olive – Osmanthus fragrans: Zones: 7-11. Height: 8-10 feet. Spacing: 6-8 feet apart. Light: Full sun to partial shade. Uses: Shrub, hedge, screen, espalier, fragrant flowers.

Yews – Taxus spp.: Zones: 4-8. Height2-20 feet, depending on variety. Spacing: 3-10 feet apart, depending on variety. Light: Full sun to shade. Uses: Hedge, screen, borders, groundcover, topiaries.



Photography and digital images are ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2020. All Rights Reserved. All photographs and digital images displayed in this article are for viewing purposes only and cannot be duplicated. ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2015.






Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Salt Tolerant Gardening


Salt Tolerant Plants

Mother Nature never ceases to amaze me with her wonderful array of plants that can take any gardening condition you have. As gardeners we have certain conditions we have to fulfill or gardens we want to do. No matter what the condition or specific 
Bottlebrush
garden we want to design Mother Nature has got you covered. You want to attract wildlife to your garden such as hummingbirds, butterflies, or birds Mother Nature has you covered. You have other climatic conditions such as plants that tolerate drought, or salt, or both. She has you covered and the really neat aspect to Mother Nature is that most of the time the plants will fill more than one category you are trying to design for such as designing a butterfly garden. A few butterfly plants will also attract hummingbirds, too.


Gardening along ocean front property or near the ocean can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. To do this all the gardener needs to do is select plants that can tolerate sea-side conditions and tolerate saline conditions.

Frangipani
















The benefits of gardening are: Plants clean the air by removing pollutants and providing us with fresh air; Plants provide oxygen; Plants cool the streets and the 

Geiger Tree

cities; Plants encourage people to healthy lifestyles such as walking, jogging, biking, or going to parks; Plants raise property values; Plants provide food for humans, birds, and wildlife; Plants heal. Studies show people heal faster with green ambience outside their windows.


Salt tolerance or saline conditions describes whether or not a plant can withstand saline conditions, salt spray, or both. Salt tolerant plants are exposed to salt spray, windy conditions, saline soils and water.There are three general conditions: 1)"Yes" indicates plants can withstand saline conditions, salt spray, salt drift, exposed coastal areas, and areas with saline irrigation water; 2)"Moderate" indicates the plant can withstand some saline conditions but should be protected from direct salt spray; and 3)"No" indicates the plant should be well-protected from saline conditions and salt spray.

Established is a plant growing in the garden for a year or more. Plants need to be established in the garden before any additional care is needed. The gardener would follow traditional rules of gardening seaside as to gardening away from the ocean and salt spray. Watering Guidelines: water newly transplanted plants 3 times a week in the spring and summer months; during the fall and winter months 2 times a week for a year.
Lignum Vitae














Let’s explore salt tolerant plants. To help in the design process the plants being discussed are divided into trees, palms, shrubs, perennials, groundcovers and vines.


Highly Salt tolerant Trees 

Aleppo Pine: Pinus halepensis - Height: 30-60’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Bottle Brush: Callistemon lanceolatus – Height: 20-25’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Buttonwood: Conocarpus erectus – Height: 25-30’. Width: 25-30’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Devilwood: Osmanthus americanus – Height: 15-25’. Width: 10-20’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Frangipani – Plumeria spp. - Height: 20-25’. Width: 15-25’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Deciduous.

Geiger Tree: Cordia sebestena – Height: 25-30’. Width: 20-25’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.  

Japanese Black Pine: Pinus thunbergii – Height: 20-60’. Width: 12-20’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Lignum Vitae: Guaiacum sanctum - Height: 25-30’. Width: 20-25’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Live Oak: Quercus virginiana – Height: 40-60’. Width: 60-80’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Mahogany: Swietenia mahagoni - Height: 40-60’. Width: 40-60’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Ochrosia: Ochrosia elliptica - Height: 20-25’. Width: 15-25’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.
 

Ochrosia















Red Bay: Persea borbonia – Height: 30-50’. Width: 30-50’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Sand Pine: Pinus clausa – Height: 25-40’. Width: 15-25’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Wax Myrtle: Morella cerifera (Myrica cerifera) – Height: 10-20’. Width:10-20’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Yaupon: Ilex vomitoria - Height: 15-20’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.


Highly Salt tolerant Palms

Blue Latan Palm: Latania loddigesii – Height: 30-35’. Width: 15’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Bottle Palm: Hyophorbe lagenicaulis – Height: 12-15’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Canary Island Date Palm: Phoenix canariensis – Height: 40-60’. Width: 30-40’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Coconut Palm: Cocos nucifera – Height: 60-80’. Width: 25-35’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.  

Coconut Palm



Key Thatch Palm: Leucothrinax morrisii (Thrinax morrisii) – Height: 15-25’. Width: 8-10’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Sabal Palm, Cabbage Palm: Sabal palmetto – Height: 40-60’. Width: 15-20’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.





Saw Palmetto: Serenoa repens - Height: 8-10’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Silver Palm: Coccothrinax argentata – Height: 15-20’. Width: 15-20’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Washington Palm: Washingtonia robusta – Height: 80-100’. Width: 25-35’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Highly Salt tolerant Shrubs

Century Plant: Agave Americana – Height: 5-7’. Width: 8-12’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Cocoplum: Chrysobalanus icaco – Height: To 15’. Width: 5-7’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Dwarf Myrtle: Myrtus communis – Height: 8-10’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Dwarf Oleander: Nerium oleander ‘Petite Salmon’ – Height: 4-5’. Width: 3-5’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.  

Dwarf Oleander
















Dwarf Pittosporum: Pittosporum tobira ‘Wheeler's Dwarf’- Height: 3-4’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Dwarf Rosemary, Prostrate Rosemary: Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Prostratus’) – Height: 2’. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Dwarf Yaupon Holly: Ilex vomitoria ‘Schellings Dwarf’- Height: 2-4’. Width: 3-5’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen. Varieties: Nana and Bordeaux are included.

Ebbingei's Silverberry: Elaeagnus X ebbingei – Height: 10-15’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Fruitland Elaeagnus: Elaeagnus pungens ‘Fruitlandii’ - Height: 10-15’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Indian Hawthorn: Rhaphiolepis indica – Height: 3-4’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Indian Hawthorn















Inkberry: Scaevola plumieri – Height: 4-6’. Width: 4-8’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Japanese Pittosporum: Pittosporum tobiraHeight: 8-10’. Width: 6-8’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Lantana: Lantana camara – Height: 3-6’. Width: 4-6’. Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen to deciduous depending on zone.

Natal Plum: Carissa macrocarpa – Height: To 10’. Width: 5-7’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.

Oleander: Nerium oleander – Height: To 20’. Width: 10-15’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Rosemary: Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) – Height: 3-6’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Spanish Bayonet: Yucca aloifolia – Height: To 15’. Width: 4-8’. Light Requirements: Full sun. Evergreen.

Spanish Bayon


Variegated Pittosporum: Pittosporum tobira ‘Variegatum’ – Height: 4-6’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. Evergreen.













Highly Salt tolerant Perennials

Baby Sun Rose: Aptenia cordifolia (Mesembryanthemum cordifolium) - Height: 6”. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Beach Sunflower: Helianthus debilis – Height: 12-24”. Width: 24-36”. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Blue Daze: Evolvulus glomeratus – Height: 10-12”. Width: 12-18”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Day Lily: Hemerocallis sp. – Height: 1-4’. Width: 15-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Gaillardia, Indian Blanket: Gaillardia pulchella – Height: 12-18”. Width: 12-18”. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Gazania Daisy: Gazania rigens var. leucolaena – Height: 12-18”. Width: 12”. Light Requirements: Full sun. 

Gazania Daisy















Golden Shrub Daisy: Euryops pectinatus ‘Viridis’ – Height: 4-6’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Lance-leaved Coreopsis: Coreopsis lanceolata – Height: 18-36”. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Madagascar Periwinkle: Catharanthus roseus – Height: 10-12”. Width: 10-12”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.
Periwinkle

Portulaca, Moss Rose: Portulaca grandiflora – Height: 4-6”. Width: 12”. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Sea Oxeye Daisy: Borrichia frutescens - Height: 2-4’. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Silver Sea Oxeye Daisy: Borrichia arborescens – Height: 2-4’. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Highly Salt tolerant Groundcovers

Blue Pacific Shore Juniper: Juniperus conferta ‘Blue Pacific’ – Height: 12-18”. Width: 3-4’. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Creeping Lily Turf: Liriope spicata – Height: 12”. Width: 12-18”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Creeping Lily Turf


Dwarf Rosemary, Prostrate Rosemary: Salvia rosmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Prostratus’) – Height: 12-18”. Width: 18-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Mondo Grass, Monkey Grass: Ophiopogon japonicus – Height: 12”. Width: 12-24”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.



Star Jasmine, Confederate Jasmine: Trachelospermum jasminoides – Height: Variable. Width: 24-36”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Trailing Lantana: Lantana montevidensis – Height: 12-24”. Width: 24-36”. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Highly Salt tolerant Vines

Bougainvillea: Bougainvillea spectabilis – Height: Variable. Width: 36-48”. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Cape Honeysuckle: Tecoma capensis (Tecomaria capensis) – Height: To 20’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun.  

Cape Honeysuckle



Palay Rubber Vine: Cryptostegia grandiflora – Height: To 20’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun.

Flame Vine: Pyrostegia venusta (P. ignea) - Height: To 20’. Width: 4-6’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.

Flowering Jasmine: Chrysojasminum floridum (Jasminum floridum) Height: 5’. Width: 3-5’. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade.


Photography and digital images are ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2020. All Rights Reserved. All photographs and digital images displayed in this article are for viewing purposes only and cannot be duplicated. ©Cheryl Ann Meola 2013. Texas Certified Nursery Professional #1282.